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Avcu N, Kanli A. The prevalence of tongue lesions in 5150 Turkish dental outpatients. Oral Dis. 2003; 9:188-95

Barnett ML, Bosshardt LL, Morgan AF. Double lip and double lip with blepharocholasis (Ascher's syndrome). Oral search oral med oral pathol. 1972 Nov;34(5):727-33.

Bengel W. Anatomical variations of the oral mucosa. Quintessenz. 2009; 60(2):133-141

Brannon RB, Pousson RR. The retrocuspid papillae: a clinical evaluation of 51 cases. J Dent Hyg. 2003 Summer;77(3):180-4.

Canaan TJ, Meehan SC. Vatiations of structure and appearance of the oral mucosa. Dent Clin Am. 2005; 49(1):1-14

Kara CO, Gokalan Kara I: Double Lip. The Internet Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2000 Volume 1 Number 1. DOI: 10.5580/1440

Kebede B, Megersa S. Idiopathic masseter muscle hypertrophy. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2011 Nov;21(3):209-12.

Madasamy R, Jayanandan M, Adhavan UR, Gopalakrishnan S, Mahendra L. Parry Romberg syndrome: A case report and discussion. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2012 Sep;16(3):406-10.

Manabe M, Lim HW, Winzer M, Loomis CA. Architectural organization of filiform papillae in normal and black hairy tongue epithelium: dissection of differentiation pathways in a complex human epithelium according to their patterns of keratin expression. Arch Dermatol 135 Morrison MD, Tamimi F. Oral tori are associated with local mechanical and systemic factors: a case-control study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013 Jan;71(1):14-22

Reamy BV, Derby R, Blunt CW. Common tongue conditions in primary care. Am Fam Physician 2010;81:627-34 Ross A, Myall RW. A case of familial lingua bifida. Can Med Assoc J. 1982; 127(3):201

Samaras D. Lingua villosa Nigra. Internal Medicine. 2012; Vol.51 No.11 p. 1453

Kaminagakura E, Jorge J Jr. Melkersson Rosenthal syndrome: a histopathologic mystery and dermatologic challenge. J Cutan Pathol 2011;38:241-5. Zervou-Valvi F, Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou E.Inheritance of commissural lip pits. Odontostomatol Proodos.1988 Oct;42(5):363-9. back

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Richard Steffen
Dr. med dent. WBA KZM SSO
Oberarzt, Assist. Prof.
Member EAPD
UZB, Universitäres Zentrum für Zahnmedizin
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CH 4058 Basel


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